Different Kinds of Learning Disabilities


A learning disability is a neurological disorder. In simple terms, a learning disability results from a difference in the way a person’s brain is “wired.” A learning disability can't be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong issue. Parents can help children with learning disabilities achieve such success by encouraging their strengths, knowing their weaknesses, understanding the educational system, working with professionals, and learning about strategies for dealing with specific difficulties.

Einstein , H.G.Wells , Charles Schwab , Steve Jobs, Steven Spielberg all these celebrities had had to grapple with learning disabilities to be successful in life. Indian celebrities such as Hrithik Roshan, Abhishek Bachchan, and Boman Iran too have overcome learning disabilities.

Though individuals with learning disabilities have impacted the world enormously, it is said that children with learning disabilities are called ‘slow’ or ‘dumb’ even today.

Types of learning disabilities :

·    

     1. Dyslexia

    


    Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that affects an individual’s ability to break words down into phonemes. This affects the development of their skills in reading, writing, and spelling. Though such persons are highly intelligent and creative, they still struggle with basic literacy skills, phonics, and pronouncing words. Research says that 20% of the population has dyslexia.

·    2. Dysgraphia:-



    Dysgraphia is a specific learning disorder in written expression referring to the language-based difficulties involved in constructing meaningful and effectively-structured expressive writing and ongoing weakness in spelling and punctuation that affect a student’s capacity to express their ideas with clarity. Persons affected with dysgraphia also faces difficulties in basic grammar and spellings.

·    3. Dyscalculia:- 



    Dyscalculia is a math learning disability that impairs an individual’s ability to learn a number related concepts, perform accurate math calculation, reason and problem solve and perform other basic math skills. Individuals with dyscalculia have difficulties with all areas of mathematics – problems not explained by a lack of proper education, intellectual disabilities, or other conditions.

·   4. Dysnomia:- 


    Dysnomia is a learning disability that is marked by difficulty in recalling words, names, numbers, etc from memory. The real problem stems from the fact that the words that they cannot remember are essential as they are needed for oral or written expressive language. The person may provide a detailed description of the word in question but is unable to recall its exact name. Even they have difficulty in name things like colors, objects, numbers, and letters.

Besides, there are other learning disorders such as Auditory processing disorder (APD), Visual Perceptual/ Visual Motor Deficit, and Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities.

India is thought to have approximately 90 million people with varying degrees of learning disabilities and an average class in schools have about 5 students with learning disabilities. These children are potential dropouts from the schools. Unfortunately in India, many children with a special learning disability (SLD) often remain undiagnosed because of a general lack of awareness leading to chronic poor school performance, class detention and even dropping out of school.

In India, a student with SLD Is most likely to exhibit emotional problems mainly due to poor academic performance.

An evaluation and identification of specific learning disabilities of children in India is a herculean task with various factors like illiteracy of parents, non-availability of standardized tests in all languages which are the media of instructions in all government schools, especially in rural areas.

Individuals with learning disabilities need a lot of understanding, support, and help in identifying their strengths and weakness.

 

References :

Roseberry-McKibbin, C . (2007) Language Disorders in children: A multicultural and case perspective. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

To read more: LDA America

Written By – Violet Priscilla S

Edited By - Anamika Malik

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