The Enigma of Schizophrenia

 Mental illness refers to a variety of mental health conditions that impact thinking, sentiment, behaviour, or mood which can lead to significant distress and makes it challenging to manage daily life including work, school, family, and social liveliness. 

One such mental disorder about which I would like to draw your attention to is Schizophrenia. You might have heard some common misconceptions about this disorder which are quite common. For instance, some people think it devises a “split personality.” 

To be brutally true, Schizophrenia and split personality — properly termed dissociative identity disorder — are two separate disorders. Most people with schizophrenia are not any more dangerous or violent than people in the general population. 


There were five types of schizophrenia till 2013 after that these subtypes were eliminated. Today, schizophrenia is one disease. They were categorized by the types of symptoms the person exhibits when they are assessed:

1) Paranoid schizophrenia

2) Disorganized schizophrenia

3) Catatonic schizophrenia

4) Undifferentiated schizophrenia

5) Residual schizophrenia


Who falls into the depth of this sickness?

Schizophrenia can befall both men and women of all years from all races and cultures. It is a mental health condition that usually appears in late adolescence or early adulthood. Men often exhibit traits in their late teens or early 20s. 

On the other hand, women tend to show signs in their late 20s and early 30s. 

The more advanced the symptoms start, the more severe the illness tends to be. Infants over the age of 5 can have schizophrenia, but it’s unique before adolescence.  

Here’s what you require to know about this mental dysfunction. Schizophrenia is a chronic, perilous, debilitating mental illness that affects about 1% of the population all over the world.

It is characterized by distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, communication, insight of self and performance. 

Schizophrenia is a long-term condition that can have a profound impact on a person’s capability to perform in life. These consequences can also affect the people around them.



1) Regular struggles include hallucinations like hearing voices or seeing things that are not there and delusions such as fixed, false beliefs, disorganized speech, trouble with reasoning and deficiency of motivation.


2) People with this malady often have problems doing well in civilisation, at work, at school, and in relationships. They might feel startled and withdrawn as they could appear to have lost touch with reality.


3) With the sudden onset of severe psychotic indications, the individual is said to be experiencing acute psychosis. Psychotic means out of touch with reality or unable to separate real from unreal encounters. 

This lifelong disease can’t be cured but can be controlled with proper treatment. But people with schizophrenia are 2 - 3 times more likely to expire early than the general society. This is often due to physical ailments, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and infectious disorders.


Though researchers aren't sure, it is thought that interplay between genes and a range of environmental factors may cause schizophrenia.

Psychosocial circumstances may also provide to schizophrenia and life stressors may play a role at the early stage of symptoms.


1) Genetic Inheritance: If there are no records of schizophrenia in a family, the chances of acquiring it are less than 1%. However, a person’s risk rises if one of their parents has an analysis of it.


2) Chemical Imbalance: Schizophrenia appears to emerge when there is an imbalance of a neurotransmitter termed dopamine, and perhaps also serotonin, in the brain.


3) Environmental Effects: Things like viral infections, vulnerability to toxins like marijuana, or highly stressful circumstances may trigger schizophrenia in people whose genes make them more likely to get the disorder.

Schizophrenia more often surfaces when the body is having hormonal and physical alterations, like those that happen during teen and young adult time. 

You must know that people with schizophrenia are at increased risk of having diverse medical predicaments, other mental health conditions, committing suicide or involving in other self-harm, and contrarily dying earlier than people without this disorder.

Before you can ask me this, yes, we do have some sparse treatment to suppress this dysfunction.


As I have informed you earlier there’s no cure for schizophrenia. If you’re diagnosed with this disorder, you’ll need permanent treatment. They can only help to control or reduce the severity of symptoms. Unfortunately, there isn’t a single test to diagnose schizophrenia.

1) A comprehensive psychiatric exam can help your doctor make an analysis. You’ll need to see a psychiatrist or mental health professional. The medical evaluation will normally include lab analyses. Treatments differ depending on each individual's requirements but may include medications, psychotherapy, and family-based services. 

2) For many people existing with this dysfunction, family support is particularly valuable to their health and well-being. It is also essential for families to be informed and supported themselves.

3) Antipsychotic drugs aren’t the only approach for people with schizophrenia need. Accompanying with medication, psychotherapy and support can help them regain their lives. 

4) People may require diverse levels of care and support depending on the severity of their condition. 

5) Another treatment option for schizophrenia is psychosocial intervention. This comprises individual therapy to help you cope with stress and your illness.

6) Vocational rehabilitation can render you with the skills you need to return to work. It might make maintaining a regular job easier.


Several people with schizophrenia may be attended as outpatients. But hospitalization may be the best option for people:

1)With severe symptoms

2)Who might harm themselves or others

3)Who can’t take care of themselves at home


With proper treatment, most people with schizophrenia can lead fruitful and fulfilling lives. Depending on how severe the malady is and how well they get and stick with medication, they should be able to live with their families or in neighbourhood settings rather than in long-term psychiatric hospitals.

Sadly, you must know that there’s no identified way to prevent schizophrenia. But early diagnosis and treatment can help to avoid or ease frequent relapses and hospitalizations, and help cut the disruption to the person's career, family, and relationships. 

Anyone caring for someone with schizophrenia can help by discovering how to spot the onset of an episode, encouraging the person to adhere to their therapy plan, and supporting them through their experience. So don't just ignore these symptoms if you ever notice them.

You might save a life by just informing them of medical assistance and helping them to walk through that phase of their life.


Written By – Bennet Vini. R

Edited By - Chavi Goel


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