India-China-Pakistan: How It All Began?

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India and Pakistan share boundaries from Line of Control (LoC) in the north to Sir Creek in Rann of Kutch between Gujarat of India and Sindhu province of Pakistan to the south. The Line of Control is the border between Pakistan controlled Kashmir and India controlled Kashmir.

India and China share borders throughout the North-East part of India except where Nepal and Bhutan are situated. The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the border between China-controlled Kashmir and India controlled Ladakh.

India - Pakistan

The British, when giving India freedom in 1947 created the country Pakistan according to the wishes of the people. The British separated the countries carelessly, starting the Kashmir conflict.

Around half a million people died of communal violence when the countries were separated. At the time Kashmir had a Hindu ruler who wanted a separate country and did not want to join either country.

When West Pakistan wanted Kashmir to join them it started creating problems for the ruler of Kashmir who then decided to join India.

Then Prime minister of India accepted and created an access agreement that gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 of the Constitution of India. It ended with the formation of Line of Control(LoC).

The second Indo-Pak war started in 1965 when West Pakistan carried out a secret operation to infiltrate into Jammu and Kashmir and cause Insurgency against the rule of India. India retaliated by attacking West Pakistan. It ended with the interruption of the UN’s ceasefire.

In 1971 East Pakistan rebelled against West Pakistan for the freedom from Islamabad which turned out to be a full-scale civil war causing millions of people to move to India.

India had to come in between because of that. It captured around 90,000 Pakistani soldiers and West Pakistan surrendered. East Pakistan became Bangladesh in 1971 December and was acknowledged by Pakistan a few years later. The border dispute continued over the years.

When Article 370 was revoked and the Union Territory of Jammu and Ladakh has formed the tension between Pakistan and India returned.

India - China

The McMohan line was part of the convention signed by Tibet and British India in the Simla Convention in 1914. China refused to accept it saying that Tibet was not Independent when it signed the agreement. 

While India still maintains the McMohan line China still refuses to agree to that which is causing the border dispute between the biggest countries of Asia.

Indo-China war started in 1962 and this border dispute is one of the main reasons for the war. The other one was that India gave asylum to Dalai Lama, the Buddhist Leader for many Buddhists in both Tibet and India in 1959. After that many small disputes happened between India and China. 

The Indo-China war was the culmination of it. The war ended when China declared a ceasefire and both India and China agreed on the formation of the Line of Actual Control.

This 2020 border dispute started when both countries claimed that the other country’s soldiers are trying to cross the border.

Kashmir - India - China 

When Article 370 was revoked in August 2020 both Pakistan and China did not acknowledge it. From then China started attacking the border security forces of the Line of Actual Control aggressively. The aggression came to a slow end, but the soldiers on either side of the border are staying alert.

China is saying that it wants a peaceful relationship with both Pakistan and India and is being diplomatic while India says that the revocation of Article 370 is an Indian matter that doesn’t concern China.

Both countries are being cautious and at the same time, China is becoming nervous at the formation of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue which is an informal strategic forum between the USA, India, Australia, and Japan. The Quad countries are also anticipating every move of China and are being cautious.

The tension between India-China and India-Pakistan is lasting several years since the day India became independent.

When will it end?

Written by - Jaime A.

Edited by – Rudransh Khurana

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